ABENAKI GRAMMAR - LESSON ONE

Prepared by: JOSEPH ALFRED ELIE JOUBERT

PRONOUN is a word that takes the place of a noun or pronoun in a sentence.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS DECLINED

Inclusive means the people we are speaking to are included in the "we/us".

Exclusive means the people we are speaking to are not included "we/us".

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR
FIRST PERSON PLURAL
nia = I or me
niona = we or us (exclusive)
kiona = we or us (inclusive)
niaiya = mine
nionaiya = ours (exclusive)
kionaiya = ours (inclusive)
niatta = myself
nionatta = ourselves (exclusive)
kionatta = ourselves (inclusive)
niak = locative form of me
nionak = locative form of us

SECOND PERSON SINGULAR
SECOND PERSON PLURAL
kia = you
kiow˘ = you
kiaiya = yours
kiow˘iya = yours
kiatta = yourself
kiow˘tta = yourselves
kiak = locative form of you
kiow˘k = locative form of you

THIRD PERSON SINGULAR
THIRD PERSON PLURAL
agma = he or she
agm˘w˘ = they or them
agmaiya = his or hers
agm˘w˘iya = theirs
agmatta = himself or herself
agm˘w˘tta = themselves
agmak = locative form of he or she
agm˘w˘k = locative from of they or them

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE DECLINED

SINGULAR
PLURAL
N'or ND' = I, me, or my
N' or ND' = we, or ours (exclusive)
K' or KD' = we, or ours (inclusive)
K' or KD' = you
K' or KD' = you, or yours
W' or WD' = he, or she
W' or WD' = they or theirs

Use (N', K' or W') for all nouns and verbs that begin with a consonant EXCEPT the letter (S).

Use (ND', KD' or WD') for all nouns and verbs that begin with a vowel.






EXAMPLES OF INANIMATE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES DECLINED:

SINGULAR
PLURAL
N'kl˘gan = my door
N'kl˘ganal = my doors
K'kl˘gan = your door
K'kl˘ganal = your doors
W'kl˘gan = his or her door 
W'kl˘ganal = his or her doors
N'kl˘ganna = our door
N'kl˘gannawal = our doors
K'kl˘ganw˘ = your door (more than one person)
K'kl˘gannowol = your doors (more thant one person)
W'kl˘ganw˘ = their door
W'kl˘gannowol = their doors
Nd'asolkw˘n = my hat
Nd'asolkw˘nal = my hats
Kd'asolkw˘n = your hat
Kd'asolkw˘nal = your hats
Wd'asolkw˘n = his or her hat
Wd'asolkw˘nal = his or her hats
Nd'asolkw˘nna = our hat
Nd'asolkw˘nnawal = our hats
Kd'asolkw˘nw˘ = your hat (more than one Person)
Kd'asolw˘nnowol = your hats (more than one person)
Wd'asolkw˘nw˘ = their hat
Wd'asolkw˘nnowol = their hats


In order to apply a demonstrative adjective to an animate noun we have to change the noun by adding a suffix to it. It is the Abenaki way of showing connectedness and reverence to it and not the pronoun. The following rules apply:

Animate nouns ending in the letters (a, i, o) add the letter (m)

nolka = deer = nolkam

abazi = tree = abzim

pit˘lo = lion = pit˘lom

Animate nouns ending in the letters (kw,gw,ai,ch, or any consonant) add the letters (em)

akikw = seal = akikwem

k˘gw = porcupine = k˘gwem

chibai = ghost = chibaiem

awanoch = French =awanochem

moz = moose = mozem

Animate nouns ending in the letters (agw,akw,skw) add the letters (om)

namagw = lake trout = namagwom

kaakw = gull = kaakwom

agaskw = ground hog = agaskwom



Note: You may use an animate noun that doesn't fall in the above rules. If this happens to you, use one of the suffixes above that sounds the best to you.








EXAMPLES OF ANIMATE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES DECLINED:

titgeli = screech owl = titgelim

SINGULAR
PLURAL
N'titgelim = my screech owl
N'titgilimak = my screech owls
K'titgelim = your screech owl
K'titgelimak = your screech owls
W'titgelim = his or her screech owl
W'titgelimak = his or her screech owls
N'titgelimna = our screech owl
N'titgelimnawak = our screech owls
K'titgelimw˘ = your screech owl (Plural)
K'titgelimw˘k = your screech owls (Plural)
W'titgelimw˘ = their screech owl
W'titgelimw˘k = their screech owls

alakws = star = alakwsem

SINGULAR
PLURAL
Nd'alakwsem = my star
Nd'alakwsemak = my stars
Kd'alakwsem = your star
Kd'alakwsemak = my stars
Wd'alakwsem = his or her star
Wd'alakwsemak = his or her stars
Nd'alakwsemna = our star
Nd'alakwsemnawak = our stars
Kd'alakwsemw˘ = your star
Kd'alakwsemw˘k = your stars (Plural)
Wd'alakwsemw˘ = their star
Wd'alakwsemw˘k = their stars


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